A.


Number of People who speak Aymara in Bolivia (Statistics obtained by the I.N.E., 1976 census)

DepartmentUnilingual
Aymara
Bilingual
Aymara/
Aymara/Queshua
Trilingual
A / S / Q
Total
Aymara-speaking
Total Population
La Paz276,547603,762
6,947
32,392919,648
(62.77)
1.465,078
Oruro23,971 50,524
10,969
35,641 121,105
(39,01)
310,409
Potosi9,335 8,643
29,140
19,250 66,368
(10,09)
657,743
Cochabamba4,4617,763
5,140
8,84026,204
(3,63)
720,952
Santa Cruz460 6,339
203
4,63811,641
(1,64)
710,724
Chuquisaca251 745
254
8382,088
(0,58)
358,516
Tarija96899
20
7291,744
(0,93)
187,204
Beni941,251
10
2931,648
(0,98)
168,367
Pando1292
1
48153
(0,44)
34,493
TOTAL315,228680,018
52,684
102,6691.150,599
(24,9%)
4.613,486





B.


Changes in the number of Aymara Speaking people in Bolivia (1854-1976)

DepartmentAymara-
Speaking
1854 Census
(%)
TotalAymara-
Speaking
1976 Census
(%)
Total
La Paz359,752(84.1)427,972919,648 (62.8)1.465,079
Oruro82,994(90.9)91,254121,105 (39.0)310,409
Other Departments(Estimate: 0)(no data) 109,846(3.9)2.837,999
TOTAL442,746--.--(no data)1.150,599(24.9)4.613,486

The data for the 1854 Census are from E.W.Middendorf's "Aymara Sprache". The 1976 Census data were supplied by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE), La Paz, Bolivia.

Analisis: The data show that total population has grown 3.4 times, whereas the number of Aymara-speaking has only grown 2.6 times. This indicates a certain decrease, probably due to "Hispancization" campaigns. On the other hand, the number of Aymara-speaking people in other departments (outside La Paz and Oruro) has increased since 1854.




C.


Aymara and Illiteracy

Aymara-speaking people
DepartmentSome years of schoolingno schooling Total
La Paz587,411332,2379 19,648
Oruro 79,896 41,209 121,105
Potosi27,20339,165 66,368
Cochabamba15,70110,503 2 6,204
TOTAL710,211423,114 1.113,325
%63.79%36.21% 100%

From table p12, 1976 Census, Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE), La Paz, Bolivia.




D.


Simbols used for the sounds of Aymara (by different anthors)
Bertonio MiddendorfEbbing Cala Maryknoll YapitaIGR
Phoneme:
Postvelar occlusive
simple
aspirate
plosive
ca que co
caa qhe cco
ka ke ko
ca que co
'ka 'ke 'ko
ka' ke' ki'
k'
kj
kk
ka que ko
kha khe kho
k'a k'e k'o
q
qh
q'
q
q"
q'
q
^q
`q;
velar occlusive
simple
aspirate
plosive
ca qui co
cca qhi khu
ka ki ku
ca qui qu
'ka 'ki 'ju
ka ki ku
k
kh
kk
ca qui co
qha qhi qhu
c'a c'i c'u
k
kh
k'
k
k"
k'
k
^k
`k
velar fricative
simple
strong aspiration
ha hi hu
kja kje kjo
'ha 'hi 'hu
'ja 'je 'jo
j, h
jj
ja ji ju
jja jje jjo
j
jj
j
x
j
^j
palatal affricate
simple
aspirate
plosive
ch
chh
cch
ch
c'h
ch'
ch
chh
chch
ch
chh
ch'
ch
chh
ch'
ch
ch"
ch'
ç

bi-labial occlusive
simple
aspirate
plosive
p
ph
pp
p
'p
p'
p
ph
pp
p
ph
p"
p
ph
p'
p
p"
p'
p
^p
`p
dental occlusive
simple
aspirate
occlusive
t
th
tt
t
't
t'
t
th
tt
t
th
t'
t
th
t'
t
t"
t'
t
^t
`t
pseudo-vowel huhu wwwww

E.

A short glossary of Aymara which shows the formation and phonemics (sic) of some words


yatiña
to know
yatiñaj
knowledge
yatiñawi
science
yatinqaña
wisdom
yatiña qanqaña
essence, substance of wisdom; "sapiencidad"/ Bol. for sapience/
yatiri
essence, substance of wisdom; "sapiencidad"/ Bol. for sapience/
yatiñakama
wisely
yatiñawikama
scientifically
yatiñawi kamana
scientific
yatiñawi qanqaña
essence of science, "scienticity"
una
object
unançaña
(to) know, to apprehend the object, to know about something
unançanaku
knowledge
unançiri
the one who knows (something special)
yatisiña
(to) use to (do something), "saberse", "poderse" / Bolivianisms/
uma
water
umaña
(to) drink
umaña yatisi
he is used to drinking
umata
drunk, tipsy
umawi
drinking trough, watering place
yatiyaña
to let know, (to) inform
unançayaña
to make something know
umayaña
to make (somebody) drink
uta
building, house
utaçaña
(to) build
yatiçaña
(to) teach, "to make wise"
yatiçiri
teacher, the one who teaches
yatiçawi
school, place where teaching is normally done
yatiqaña
(to) learn
yatiqeri
learner, pupil
qanqaña
(yo) be (ontologic sense)
qanqaña^j
being
qanqata
character
qanqawi
characteristc
qanqjaña
(to) exist
qanqjañawi
existence
utjaña
there be; to be available
utji
there is (are)
janiw utjkiti
there is (are) not
kanka
roast
kankaña
(to) roast
kankata
roasted
-wa
(to) be, copulative verbal sufix
ja`ça
big
ja`çawa
it is big
qanqañaça janiça tullanska, maa jis^kiwa.
IGR gives this translations in English: (To be or not to be is a question)
janit qanqkamna^ja?, ya^qa jis^kiwa ("by any chance it is not that it is")
by any chance is it not?, is another question)
-mna
verb ending for the general person (sic)
saña
(to) say
samna
people say
luraña
(to) do, make
luramna
people do
yatimna
people know
qala
stone qalaqera (uqarry, place where one gets stones)
qala qala
stony or rocky ground
qalanaka
several stones, stones
qalarara
stony, rocky
qalaçaña
(to) turn into stone
qalaçasiña
(to) be petrified
qalaptaña
(to) become hard as a rock
qalaçaña
(to) pave
qalançaraña
(to) unpave
qolla
medicine, medicinal drug
qollaña
(to) cure with medicines
qolliri
physician (some one who cures using medicine)
qolla kamana
pharmacologist, the one who prepares medicines
qora
grass
qolla qora
medicinal herb
qora qora
pasture, place where where there are many grasses(or herbs)
qoqa
tree
qoqa qoqa
forest
kuka
coca, coca plant
kuka kuka
coca plantation
qoya
original ancestry of andean cultures
suyu
space, territory
qoya suyu
Qoya territory
qoya^j
woman, queen of Qoya stock
qoya jaqe^j
Qoya man
jaqe
man, woman, human being
warmi
woman
çaça
man, male
wawa
young (of man, animals and plants)
çaça wawa
little male
warmi wawa
little famale
asu
newborn baby
asu wawa
newborn animal
asu
tender, young
tayna
first-born (either male or female)
taynaña
(to) give birth for the first time
tayniri
woman who is giving birth for the first time
wawaçasiña
(to) give birth
wawaçasiri
woman who is giving birth
qallu
young, kid, pup
qaçu )( orqo
female) (male
la`pa
louse
la`paña
lousy
^Kuçi
pig, hog
^Kuçiña
"puerquienta", swine (word of Aymara origin)
^Kuçiqerari
pigsty
Kusi
happy
Kusiña
to) make (someone) happy
Kusisiña
(to) be happy
^kayma
apathetic
^kaymasiña
to) become apathetic
^kari
liar
^karisiña
(to) lie / to oneself /
`qelli
resentful, (to) feel rejected, not to get attention
`qelliña
(to) bear someone resentment, to be annoyed with someone
`qellisiña
(to) become resentfull of, to resent
`qellu
yellow
`qellurata
yellowish
`çima
violet (colour)
`çima^ka
violaceous
^qella
ash
^qellaka
ashy
^qellawi
ashtray
^kata
lime
^katawi
limestone quarry
qata
place
nayra qata
first place
nayra qatankaña
(to) be in first place
`qata
too tight, "muy apreto" / Bolivianism /
kaka
grey hair, faded
^ka^ka
stutterer
qaqa
cavern, deep cave
^qa^qa
cooking stove
^qana
light, clarity, clear
qana
fishing net
^kana
plait (or braid)
jama
manner, mode
ukjama
thus (that way)
ukjamawa
it is so
qaljama
like stone
jaqjama
human-like
kunjamasá?
what does it look like?
kami
how
kamisá?
how is it?
^jama
excrement, scum, dregs
^jamjama
like excrement
kamisáki?
how are you? ("cómo es nomás") / Bolivianism /
waliki
well NOMAS
wali
well
tanta
meeting, reunion
tantaña
(to) get together
tantasiña
(to) meet
tantanaku
"(to) like together", "matching"
`tan`ta
bread
`tan`taçaña
to make bread
`tan`taçiri
baker (one who likes making bread)
`tan`ta kamana
baker, (one who makes a living from bread making
^tan^ta
old, torn, outdated thing
^tan^talli
ungraceful, wracked, destroyed
^tan^tawalla
poor man, person dressed in rags
^qatu
market, stall
`tan`ta ^qatu
place where bread is sold
^tan^ta ^qatu
flea market
`çama
strength
`çamani
strong (who has strength)
`çama ^ktara
strong man (who is very strong)
sinti
strong, intense
sintikama
strongly
^çama
that is not well ground or milled, half ground
çeqa
right
`çeqa )( kupi
left) (right
^çeqa
wing
jupa
he or she
ju^pa
quinoa
para
front
`para
flight, scare
^para
dry, lacking in water
uru
day
oro
vault, a hill shaped like a vault
oro oro
place where there are many vault-shaped hills (Oruro)
tutu
great
tutu sariri
good walker, wanderer, mast, pole
toto
mast, pole
qollo
mountain
qollo qollo
mountain range
qollu
waste (of time)
uru qollu
wasting the day
ayllu
geographical and cultural environment in which somebody was born
ayllo
bolas (weapon which consists of several roped tied together with
mori
wet, that has absorbed water
muri
desperate, disconsolate
man`qa
food
man`qaña
(to) eat
man`qasiña
(to) eat together
man`qafapiña
(to) eat (several people together)
man`qantaña
(to) gulp down, to gobble up
man`qsuña
(to) eat (everything, to leave nothing on the plate)
man`qayaña
(to) meke someone eat (to) help someone to eat)
man`qaçukiña
(to) pretend one is eating
man`qawi
eater

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